Siria, dalla primavera araba alla guerra fra sunniti e sciiti


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  • A conflict within Islam. 12/07/2012 [se non rinunciano alla sharia? sterminare i musulmani sarà inevitabile: dopo tutto è a questo che ha lavorato il FMI!] MIDDLE EAST. Syria, from the Arab spring to war between Sunnis and Shiites. by Samir Khalil Samir. Many players have entered the Syrian conflict: Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Iran, Turkey, Israel, Iraq, Lebanon, Russia, China, USA, Europe. All are dominated by a conflict within Islam. Christians in the most difficult situation: a choice between political dictatorship or Islamic dictatorship. Radical Islam on the rise in Europe, but the West does not seem to care. Part two of the analysis by the great scholar of Islam. Beirut (AsiaNews) - In Syria, what began as an Arab Spring, eager for greater dignity, work and freedom, has slipped out of hand to become a regional and international conflict in which Saudi Arabia and Qatar are fighting against Iran ,
  • Nessuno Unius REI 
    Nessuno Unius REI ha pubblicato un commento 
    8 secondi fa
    A conflict within Islam. [if, give up: not, to sharia?? exterminate the Muslims will be inevitable, after all, to this his agenda IMF: new world war!] Turkey and Israel against Syria, Russia and China against the United States and Europe. At first efforts were concentrated on the demand for greater dignity, but after receiving only violence as a response from the government, the Spring has become a well armed rebellion. Many army officers have defected and organized an armed response. Now both sides are fighting with weapons. A conflict within Islam. Syria, unlike Egypt, is a multicultural and multiethnic country: there are Druze, Christians (9%), Kurds (7%), Sunni (70%), and other small groups, and this country, so far, is dominated by the Alawite (12-13%).
  • FrozenScreen 
    FrozenScreen ha pubblicato un commento 
    14 secondi fa
    STOP CHANGING THE LAYOUT, if you really enjoy doing it make an option to revert it to a stable layout which is the same forever and ever... IT'S REALLY ANNOYING RIGHT NOW
  • Nessuno Unius REI 
    Nessuno Unius REI ha pubblicato un commento 
    20 secondi fa
    A conflict within Islam. [if, give up: not, to sharia?? exterminate the Muslims will be inevitable, after all, to this his agenda IMF: new world war!] All this leads the Syrian tensions to a regional conflict. The fear, for Sunnis and the majority of Arab countries, is that Syria, religiously tied to Iran, could become increasingly instrumental to the spread of Shiism. It must be said that Iran's enemies, rather than Israel, are Sunnis. On the other hand, the fear of Islam is the fear of Shiism, which is advancing in every Islamic country. Last week, in Cairo (Egypt), I came across a group of Shiite Muslims for the first time in more than a millennium, who were promoting their religion there. They were stopped by Sunni leaders. I have heard that the same phenomenon is occurring in Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, and in many African countries.
  • Nessuno Unius REI 
    Nessuno Unius REI ha pubblicato un commento 
    1 minuto fa
    A conflict within Islam. [if, give up: not, to sharia?? exterminate the Muslims will be inevitable, after all, to this his agenda IMF: new world war!] In the conflict between Sunnis and Shiites, the religious dimension is a pretext for a political struggle. The conflict arose after Muhammad's death (in 632). In his farewell speech, in Ghadir Khomm, Muhammad wanted as his successor in command, his son Ali. In his place, however, there was Abu Bakhr, the father of Fatima, the wife of Muhammad, who was from another tribe. Then there were two other caliphs, Omar Ibn al-Khattâb and Uthman Ibn 'Affân. The Shiites are those who defend the line of the power of Ali and the family of the prophet. So, from the very outset the conflict is ethnic in origin, almost a family feud. Up to this very day, the Shiites, when they recite the Muslim blessing, they bless Muhammad "and his family" (wa-âlihi).
  • Nessuno Unius REI 
    Nessuno Unius REI ha pubblicato un commento 
    1 minuto fa
    A conflict within Islam. [if, give up: not, to sharia?? exterminate the Muslims will be inevitable, after all, to this his agenda IMF: new world war!] And from this one can immediately recognize that they are Shiites. The tribal, ethnic and political opposition is here to stay for eternity. I was in Najaf (Iraq) last month, and every day there were lectures and broadcasts against Sunnis, especially against Saudi Arabia and the Wahhabis. This conflict is even more bitterly imbedded than the hatred between Palestinians and Israelis. The conflict in Syria is the result of this wound, because there Shiism is in power and the Sunni majority is excluded. What future? Syria's future is still unclear. One of the solutions mentioned is to divide Syria - according to an Israeli-American plan - into diverse sectarian cantons, undermining Syria as power and crumbling it up into many small states.
  • superdude385 
    superdude385 ha pubblicato un commento 
    1 minuto fa
    Please change the youtube layout back to the old one please. I don't like the new one.
  • Nessuno Unius REI 
    Nessuno Unius REI ha pubblicato un commento 
    1 minuto fa
    A conflict within Islam. [if, give up: not, to sharia?? exterminate the Muslims will be inevitable, after all, to this his agenda IMF: new world war!] The crumbling of Syria is likely to cause an earthquake in Turkey, another multiethnic and multicultural country, where there are millions of Kurds and Alevis million, and several other groups. At the same time, Turkey wants to exclude the existence of a Kurdish nation on its borders, involving the Kurds of Syria, Iraq and Iran. We are at a monumental impasse and with no solution in sight for Syria unless the international community intervenes. The rebellion can not do anything without international help. On the other hand, the international community is afraid to enter the Syrian cauldron because there are also many radical fringes of Islamists and al-Qaeda in the opposition.
  • Nessuno Unius REI 
    Nessuno Unius REI ha pubblicato un commento 
    1 minuto fa
    A conflict within Islam. [if, give up: not, to sharia?? exterminate the Muslims will be inevitable, after all, to this his agenda IMF: new world war!] There are also those who attest that the Islamist solution is better for the United States, in safeguarding economic ties with America. By now, the solution is no longer in the hands of the Syrians. The problem is regional and international. Iran and Turkey are the two powers that have the possibility of expansion. The rest of the Arab world does not have it, either from the point of view of the population or the military. Therefore, the common opinion in Syria: "There is no way out and we are waiting for an international decision." The fate of Christians. In this context, the situation of Christians is by far the weakest. They have no one to rely on. In some ways similar to what happened in Iraq, where it seems that Christianity is in the process of disappearing,
  • Nessuno Unius REI 
    Nessuno Unius REI ha pubblicato un commento 
    1 minuto fa
    A conflict within Islam. [if, give up: not, to sharia?? exterminate the Muslims will be inevitable, after all, to this his agenda IMF: new world war!] maybe in 50 years there will be no more Christians in this country. In Lebanon, unfortunately, same phenomenon is in act, a land emptying of Christians, due to insecurity and emigration. Yet there is no ostensibly "religious" discrimination or wars, it has occurred due to economic and sometimes cultural reasons.
  • Nessuno Unius REI 
    Nessuno Unius REI ha pubblicato un commento 
    2 minuti fa
    A conflict within Islam. [if, give up: not, to sharia?? exterminate the Muslims will be inevitable, after all, to this his agenda IMF: new world war!] Of course, Lebanon, in the middle of the last century, attempted to build a pluralistic, multi-ethnic and multi-religious social structure. It is the only country to have attempted this and remains a model - albeit fragile - in the Middle East, as mentioned Pope Benedict XVI when he came to visit last September. But the future outlook is a difficult one. In Syria Christians fear an Islamist future, and the same can be said for Egyptian Christians. The attitude of the Christian leaders in the face of rebellion has often been criticized. But we must try to understand. No one argues that the Syrian regime of Bashar al-Assad is good, even less democratic. Everyone knows that political freedom is almost non-existent, as well as freedom of speech.
  • Nessuno Unius REI 
    Nessuno Unius REI ha pubblicato un commento 
    2 minuti fa
    A conflict within Islam. [if, give up: not, to sharia?? exterminate the Muslims will be inevitable, after all, to this his agenda IMF: new world war!] Everyone knows that anyone who opposes the policy of the regime ends up in prison and subjected to torture. On the other hand, unlike many Muslim countries, Christians enjoy total religious freedom in Syria, thanks to the doctrine of the Baathist regime (that of Baas = Ba'th created by the Orthodox Christian Michel Aflaq). Syria does not distinguish between Muslim (to whatever group one belongs) and Christian: everyone is an equal citizen. But state control is everywhere, for everyone. Like all dictatorships, order and security are guaranteed. None of these advantages are to be despised. And since the majority of Christians have no political ambitions, nor intend to enter into politics,
  • Nessuno Unius REI 
    Nessuno Unius REI ha pubblicato un commento 
    2 minuti fa
    A conflict within Islam. [if, give up: not, to sharia?? exterminate the Muslims will be inevitable, after all, to this his agenda IMF: new world war!] they live in peace and freedom by accepting the limitations set forth by the Baathist power. So, knowing that there is no perfect system in politics, they choose the lesser evil: a guarantee of life, safety, freedom of religion, renouncing political freedom. Their approached is consoled by the fact that no-one knows what the alternative could be. Looking at the evolution of the Arab-Islamic world, the alternative seems to be a fundamentalist Islamic regime, which is worse because it touches the deep convictions of the human person. In other words: the only choice is between a political or religious dictatorship. The latter would seem far more frustrating. If we compare the situation of Christians in Syria and that of Egypt,
  • Nessuno Unius REI 
    Nessuno Unius REI ha pubblicato un commento 
    3 minuti fa
    A conflict within Islam. [if, give up: not, to sharia?? exterminate the Muslims will be inevitable, after all, to this his agenda IMF: new world war!] no doubt the lot of the Syrians would seem preferable: Christians enjoy the same rights of all Syrians, contrary to the Egyptians! What the future will be, no one can predict. Certainly it will take courage: a defeatist attitude is not worthy of the Christian vocation to rebuild, along with all other citizens, a more human city. The West's attitude . The West, preoccupied with its economic and political problems, does not seem to care much about the Islamist drift. But it does not realize that this Islamization has many consequences and repercussions for the West itself. Islamic fundamentalism is becoming increasingly obvious in the Muslim community in Europe. The last survey in France, by the IFOP,
  • Nessuno Unius REI 
    Nessuno Unius REI ha pubblicato un commento 
    3 minuti fa
    A conflict within Islam. [if, give up: not, to sharia?? exterminate the Muslims will be inevitable, after all, to this his agenda IMF: new world war!] on how the French view Islam, shows that the situation is getting worse: more than 60% of the French believes Islam is incongruous to the West, unable to integrate. This negative view comes from the fact that the Islamic world clearly rejects the West, which it considers "atheist" and "immoral". Added to that the current debate on gay marriage, on civil unions (PACS), on adoption by unmarried couples. For the fundamentalist Muslim world, the West is against God and therefore is to be fought, and in the Islamist discourse, the West is the "new Jahiliyyah," the new paganism. For the West, Islam is impossible to assimilate and the Muslim seems unable to integrate into European culture. It is therefore to be rejected.
  • Nessuno Unius REI 
    Nessuno Unius REI ha pubblicato un commento 
    3 minuti fa
    A conflict within Islam. [if, give up: not, to sharia?? exterminate the Muslims will be inevitable, after all, to this his agenda IMF: new world war!] Western secularism (especially French) is atheism for the Muslim world. So talk of secularism is automatically rejected by many. Pope Benedict XVI, in his apostolic exhortation "Ecclesia in Medio Oriente" September 14, 2012 (No. 29), highlights this: " Some Middle Eastern political and religious leaders, whatever their community, tend to look with suspicion upon secularity (laïcité) as something intrinsically atheistic or immoral. " Instead the model suggested by the pope is another: "A healthy secularity, on the other hand, frees religion from the encumbrance of politics, and allows politics to be enriched by the contribution of religion, while maintaining the necessary distance, clear distinction and indispensable collaboration between the two spheres.
  • Nessuno Unius REI 
    Nessuno Unius REI ha pubblicato un commento 
    4 minuti fa
    A conflict within Islam. [if, give up: not, to sharia?? exterminate the Muslims will be inevitable, after all, to this his agenda IMF: new world war!] No society can develop in a healthy way without embodying a spirit of mutual respect between politics and religion, avoiding the constant temptation either to merge the two or to set them at odds." Therefore the West's attitude towards religion has some repercussions on the Islamic world's attitude towards the West. And Europe should be taking this into account. (End of Part Two. For Part One see here: Unfinished: the Arab Spring's Islamic winter)
  • Sithguy77 
    Sithguy77 ha pubblicato un commento 
    10 minuti fa
    Why the hell do ye keep changing the god damn layout? There was nothing wrong with it. Fuck you Youtube. Fuck you. I'm so glad I unsubbed last year.
  • Trexmaster12 
    Trexmaster12 ha pubblicato un commento 
    13 minuti fa
    How do I browse through videos of the same user? Either I can't see it or you forgot that option.
  • SoccerOfficials 
    SoccerOfficials ha pubblicato un commento 
    17 minuti fa
    I hate the new layout!
  • Nessuno Unius REI 
    Nessuno Unius REI ha pubblicato un commento 
    24 minuti fa
    Egypt protests explode. Bites:Morsi, on the run from the presidential palace Clashes in the streets against the reforms desired by the President. Firing of tear gas, then the security forces withdraw. El Baradei. "In the presence of a president with absolute power, and in the absence of a judiciary, have recourse to the ballot box is a move illegal and misleading false democracy," he wrote on Twitter opposition leader Mohamed ElBaradei. - ANSWER - Salafis, MUSLIM BROTHERHOOD, ARAB LEAGUE, ARAB ARABIA? ARE the religious maniacs killers, like everywhere else, also in Syria! are incompatible with democracy, and human rights, if they do not remove the Sharia? they will become more dangerous, tha

12/07/2012 15:52
MIDDLE EAST
Syria, from the Arab spring to war between Sunnis and Shiites
by Samir Khalil Samir
Many players have entered the Syrian conflict: Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Iran, Turkey, Israel, Iraq, Lebanon, Russia, China, USA, Europe. All are dominated by a conflict within Islam. Christians in the most difficult situation: a choice between political dictatorship or Islamic dictatorship. Radical Islam on the rise in Europe, but the West does not seem to care. Part two of the analysis by the great scholar of Islam.


Beirut (AsiaNews) - In Syria, what began as an Arab Spring, eager for greater dignity, work and freedom, has slipped out of hand to become a regional and international conflict in which Saudi Arabia and Qatar are fighting against Iran , Turkey and Israel against Syria, Russia and China against the United States and Europe.
At first efforts were concentrated on the demand for greater dignity, but after receiving only violence as a response from the government, the Spring has become a well armed rebellion. Many army officers have defected and organized an armed response. Now both sides are fighting with weapons.

A conflict within Islam

Syria, unlike Egypt, is a multicultural and multiethnic country: there are Druze, Christians (9%), Kurds (7%), Sunni (70%), and other small groups, and this country, so far, is dominated by the Alawite (12-13%).

All this leads the Syrian tensions to a regional conflict. The fear, for Sunnis and the majority of Arab countries, is that Syria, religiously tied to Iran, could become increasingly instrumental to the spread of Shiism.
It must be said that Iran's enemies, rather than Israel, are Sunnis. On the other hand, the fear of Islam is the fear of Shiism, which is advancing in every Islamic country. Last week, in Cairo (Egypt), I came across a group of Shiite Muslims for the first time in more than a millennium, who were promoting their religion there. They were stopped by Sunni leaders. I have heard that the same phenomenon is occurring in Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, and in many African countries.
In the conflict between Sunnis and Shiites, the religious dimension is a pretext for a political struggle. The conflict arose after Muhammad's death (in 632). In his farewell speech, in Ghadir Khomm, Muhammad wanted as his successor in command, his son Ali. In his place, however, there was Abu Bakhr, the father of Fatima, the wife of Muhammad, who was from another tribe. Then there were two other caliphs, Omar Ibn al-Khattâb and Uthman Ibn 'Affân. The Shiites are those who defend the line of the power of Ali and the family of the prophet. So, from the very outset the conflict is ethnic in origin, almost a family feud. Up to this very day, the Shiites, when they recite the Muslim blessing, they bless Muhammad "and his family" (wa-âlihi). And from this one can immediately recognize that they are Shiites.
The tribal, ethnic and political opposition is here to stay for eternity. I was in Najaf (Iraq) last month, and every day there were lectures and broadcasts against Sunnis, especially against Saudi Arabia and the Wahhabis. This conflict is even more bitterly imbedded than the hatred between Palestinians and Israelis. The conflict in Syria is the result of this wound, because there Shiism is in power and the Sunni majority is excluded.
What future?

Syria's future is still unclear. One of the solutions mentioned is to divide Syria - according to an Israeli-American plan - into diverse sectarian cantons, undermining Syria as power and crumbling it up into many small states.

The crumbling of Syria is likely to cause an earthquake in Turkey, another multiethnic and multicultural country, where there are millions of Kurds and Alevis million, and several other groups. At the same time, Turkey wants to exclude the existence of a Kurdish nation on its borders, involving the Kurds of Syria, Iraq and Iran.

We are at a monumental impasse and with no solution in sight for Syria unless the international community intervenes. The rebellion can not do anything without international help.
On the other hand, the international community is afraid to enter the Syrian cauldron because there are also many radical fringes of Islamists and al-Qaeda in the opposition. There are also those who attest that the Islamist solution is better for the United States, in safeguarding economic ties with America.

By now, the solution is no longer in the hands of the Syrians. The problem is regional and international. Iran and Turkey are the two powers that have the possibility of expansion. The rest of the Arab world does not have it, either from the point of view of the population or the military. Therefore, the common opinion in Syria: "There is no way out and we are waiting for an international decision."
The fate of Christians
In this context, the situation of Christians is by far the weakest. They have no one to rely on. In some ways similar to what happened in Iraq, where it seems that Christianity is in the process of disappearing, maybe in 50 years there will be no more Christians in this country. In Lebanon, unfortunately, same phenomenon is in act, a land emptying of Christians, due to insecurity and emigration. Yet there is no ostensibly "religious" discrimination or wars, it has occurred due to economic and sometimes cultural reasons.

Of course, Lebanon, in the middle of the last century, attempted to build a pluralistic, multi-ethnic and multi-religious social structure. It is the only country to have attempted this and remains a model - albeit fragile - in the Middle East, as mentioned Pope Benedict XVI when he came to visit last September. But the future outlook is a difficult one.
In Syria Christians fear an Islamist future, and the same can be said for Egyptian Christians. The attitude of the Christian leaders in the face of rebellion has often been criticized. But we must try to understand. No one argues that the Syrian regime of Bashar al-Assad is good, even less democratic. Everyone knows that political freedom is almost non-existent, as well as freedom of speech. Everyone knows that anyone who opposes the policy of the regime ends up in prison and subjected to torture.

On the other hand, unlike many Muslim countries, Christians enjoy total religious freedom in Syria, thanks to the doctrine of the Baathist regime (that of Baas = Ba'th created by the Orthodox Christian Michel Aflaq). Syria does not distinguish between Muslim (to whatever group one belongs) and Christian: everyone is an equal citizen. But state control is everywhere, for everyone. Like all dictatorships, order and security are guaranteed. None of these advantages are to be despised.
And since the majority of Christians have no political ambitions, nor intend to enter into politics, they live in peace and freedom by accepting the limitations set forth by the Baathist  power. So, knowing that there is no perfect system in politics, they choose the lesser evil: a guarantee of life, safety, freedom of religion, renouncing political freedom.

Their approached is consoled by the fact that no-one knows what the alternative could be. Looking at the evolution of the Arab-Islamic world, the alternative seems to be a fundamentalist Islamic regime, which is worse because it touches the deep convictions of the human person. In other words: the only choice is between a political or religious dictatorship. The latter would seem far more frustrating.

If we compare the situation of Christians in Syria and that of Egypt, no doubt the lot of the Syrians would seem preferable: Christians enjoy the same rights of all Syrians, contrary to the Egyptians!

What the future will be, no one can predict. Certainly it will take courage: a defeatist attitude is not worthy of the Christian vocation to rebuild, along with all other citizens, a more human city.
The West's attitude 
The West, preoccupied with its economic and political problems, does not seem to care much about the Islamist drift. But it does not realize that this Islamization has many consequences and repercussions for the West itself.

Islamic fundamentalism is becoming increasingly obvious in the Muslim community in Europe. The last survey in France, by the IFOP, on how the French view Islam, shows that the situation is getting worse: more than 60% of the French believes Islam is incongruous to the West, unable to integrate.

This negative view comes from the fact that the Islamic world clearly rejects the West, which it considers "atheist" and "immoral". Added to that the current debate on gay marriage, on civil unions (PACS), on adoption by unmarried couples. For the fundamentalist Muslim world, the West is against God and therefore is to be fought, and in the Islamist discourse, the West is the "new Jahiliyyah," the new paganism.
For the West, Islam is impossible to assimilate and the Muslim seems unable to integrate into European culture. It is therefore to be rejected. Western secularism (especially French) is atheism for the Muslim world. So talk of secularism is automatically rejected by many. Pope Benedict XVI, in his apostolic exhortation "Ecclesia in Medio Oriente" September 14, 2012 (No. 29), highlights this: " Some Middle Eastern political and religious leaders, whatever their community, tend to look with suspicion upon secularity (laïcité) as something intrinsically atheistic or immoral. "

Instead the model suggested by the pope is another:
"A healthy secularity, on the other hand, frees religion from the encumbrance of politics, and allows politics to be enriched by the contribution of religion, while maintaining the necessary distance, clear distinction and indispensable collaboration between the two spheres.
No society can develop in a healthy way without embodying a spirit of mutual respect between politics and religion, avoiding the constant temptation either to merge the two or to set them at odds."
Therefore the West's attitude towards religion has some repercussions on the Islamic world's attitude towards the West. And Europe should be taking this into account.

(End of Part Two. For Part One see here: Unfinished: the Arab Spring's Islamic winter)


 07/12/2012 08:53
MEDIO ORIENTE
Siria, dalla primavera araba alla guerra fra sunniti e sciiti
di Samir Khalil Samir
Molti attori sono entrati nel conflitto siriano: Arabia saudita, Qatar, Iran, Turchia, Israele, Iraq, Libano, Russia, Cina, Stati Uniti, Europa. Su tutte domina un conflitto interno all'Islam. I cristiani nella situazione più difficile: una scelta fra la dittatura politica o la dittatura islamica. L'islamismo radicale cresce anche in Europa, ma l'Occidente sembra non curarsi. La Seconda parte dell'analisi del grande islamologo.


Beirut (AsiaNews) - In Siria, quella che era iniziata come una primavera araba, desiderosa di maggiore dignità, lavoro e libertà, è ormai sfuggita dalle mani e divenuta un conflitto regionale e internazionale in cui si combattono Arabia saudita e Qatar contro l'Iran; Turchia e Israele contro la Siria; Russia e Cina contro Stati Uniti ed Europa.
All'inizio l'impegno era concentrato sulla richiesta di maggiore dignità, ma avendo ricevuto solo violenze dal governo, la primavera è diventata una ribellione anche armata. Molti ufficiali hanno disertato e organizzato la risposta militare. Ora tutti i due fronti lottano con le armi.
Un conflitto interno all'islam
La Siria, a differenza dell'Egitto, è un Paese multiculturale e multietnico: vi sono drusi, cristiani (9%) curdi (7%), sunniti (70%), e altri gruppuscoli, e tale Paese è dominato per ora dagli alawiti (12-13%).
Tutto questo porta le tensioni siriane a un conflitto regionale. La paura, per i Sunniti e per la maggioranza dei Paesi arabi, è che la Siria, legata religiosamente all'Iran, divenga sempre più strumentale alla diffusione dello sciismo.
Va detto che i nemici dell'Iran, più che Israele, sono i sunniti. E d'altra parte, la paura dell'islam è la paura dello sciismo, che avanza in ogni Paese islamico. La settimana scorsa, al Cairo (Egitto), mi sono imbattuto in un gruppo di musulmani sciiti: per la prima volta dopo oltre un millennio, facevano propaganda alla loro religione in quel luogo. Sono stati fermati dai responsabili sunniti. Sento dire che lo stesso fenomeno avviene in Algeria, Marocco, Tunisia, e in molti Paesi d'Africa.
Nel conflitto fra sunniti e sciiti, la dimensione religiosa è un pretesto per una lotta politica. Il conflitto è nato subito dopo la morte di Maometto (nel 632). Nel suo discorso di addio, a Ghadîr Khomm, Maometto avrebbe voluto come suo successore nel comando, suo genero Alì. Al suo posto, invece, vi è stato Abu Bakhr, il padre di Fatima la sposa di Maometto, che era di un'altra tribù. Poi vi sono stati altri due califfi, Omar Ibn al-Khattâb e Uthman Ibn 'Affân. Gli sciiti sono coloro che difendono la linea del potere di Alì e della famiglia del profeta. Dunque, fin dall'origine il conflitto è di origine etnica e di faida quasi familiare. Fino ad ora, gli sciiti, quando fanno la benedizione musulmana, benedicono Maometto "e la sua famiglia" (wa-âlihi). E da qui si riconosce subito che sono sciiti.
L'opposizione tribale, etnico-politica rimarrà per l'eternità. Sono stato a Najaf (Iraq) nel mese scorso, e ogni giorno vi sono prediche e trasmissioni contro i sunniti, in particolare contro l'Arabia Saudita e i Wahhabiti. Questo conflitto è più aspro perfino dell'odio fra palestinesi e israeliani. Il conflitto in Siria è frutto di questa ferita, perché lì lo sciismo è al potere e una maggioranza sunnita ne è esclusa.
Quale futuro?
Il futuro della Siria non è ancora chiaro. Una delle soluzioni di cui si parla è di dividere la Siria - secondo un piano israelo-americano - in tanti cantoni confessionali, indebolendo la Siria come potenza e sbriciolandola in tanti staterelli.
Lo sbriciolamento della Siria rischia di provocare un terremoto anche in Turchia, altro Paese multietnico e multiculturale, dove vi sono milioni di curdi e milioni di aleviti, e parecchi altri gruppi. Allo stesso tempo, la Turchia vuole escludere la nascita di una nazione kurda ai suoi confini, che abbracci i kurdi della Siria, dell'Iraq e dell'Iran.
Siamo in una grande empasse e non vi sono soluzioni in vista per la Siria a meno che non intervenga la comunità internazionale. La ribellione non riesce a fare nulla senza l'aiuto internazionale.
D'altra parte la comunità internazionale è timorosa ad entrare nel calderone siriano, perché nell'opposizione vi sono anche molte frange di islamisti radicali e di qaedisti. Vi è anche chi afferma che per gli Stati Uniti è meglio questa soluzione islamista, salvaguardando i legami economici con l'America.
Oramai, la soluzione non è più nelle mani dei soli siriani. Il problema è regionale e internazionale. L'Iran e la Turchia sono due potenze che hanno possibilità di espansionismo. Il resto del mondo arabo non ce l'ha, né dal punto di vista della popolazione né dal punto di vista militare. Perciò l'opinione comune in Siria è: "Non c'è via di uscita e stiamo aspettando le decisioni internazionali".
I destino dei cristiani
In questo quadro, la situazione dei cristiani è la più debole. Non possono appoggiarsi a nessuno. Un po' come in passato è avvenuto in Iraq, dove sembra che il cristianesimo sia in via di sparizione; forse fra 50 anni non vi saranno più cristiani in questo Paese. Anche in Libano, purtroppo, si riproduce lo stesso fenomeno dello svuotamento dei cristiani,  a causa dell'insicurezza e dell'emigrazione. Eppure non c'è né discriminazione e le guerre, in apparenza "religiose", sono avvenute per motivi economici e talvolta culturali.
Certo, il Libano, a metà del secolo scorso, ha tentato una struttura sociale pluralistica, multietnica e multireligiosa. È l'unico Paese ad avere tentato questo e rimane un modello - anche se fragile - all'interno del Medio Oriente, come ha accennato anche Benedetto XVI quando è venuto in visita lo scorso settembre. Ma le prospettive sono difficili.
In Siria i cristiani temono un futuro islamista; lo stesso è per i cristiani egiziani. L'atteggiamento dei responsabili cristiani di fronte alla ribellione è stato talvolta criticato. Ma occorre cercare di capire. Nessuno sostiene che il regime siriano di Bashâr al-Assad sia buono, ancor meno che sia democratico. Tutti sanno che la libertà politica è quasi inesistente, come anche la libertà di parola. Tutti sanno che chiunque si oppone alla politica del regime finisce in prigione ed è sottomesso alla tortura.
D'altra parte, a differenza di tanti Paesi musulmani, i cristiani godono in Siria della totale libertà religiosa, grazie alla dottrino baasista del regime, dottrina (quella del Baas = ba'th) creata dal cristiano ortodosso Michel Aflaq). La Siria non fa distinzione tra musulmano (a qualunque gruppo appartenga) e cristiano: tutti sono cittadini alla pari. Ma il controllo dello Stato è ovunque, per tutti. Come tutte le dittature, la sicurezza e l'ordine sono garantiti. Sono tutti vantaggi da non disprezzare.
E siccome la maggioranza dei cristiani non ha ambizioni politiche, né intende far politica, vive in pace e libertà accettando le limitazioni stabilite dal potere baasista. Insomma, sapendo che non esiste nella politica un sistema perfetto, scelgono il male minore: garantire la vita, la sicurezza, la libertà religiosa, rinunciando alla libertà politica.
Ciò che conforta quest'approccio è che non si sa quale possa essere l'alternativa. A vedere l'evoluzione del mondo arabo-islamico, l'alternativa sembra essere un regime islamico fondamentalista, il ché è peggio perché tocca le convinzioni profonde della persona umana. Per dirla in una parola: c'è solo la scelta tra la dittatura politica e quella religiosa. L'ultima sembra a molti più frustrante.
Se paragoniamo la situazione dei cristiani della Siria con quella dell'Egitto, non fa dubbio che quella dei siriani è preferibile: i cristiani vi godono di tutti i diritti dei siriani, contrariamente agli egiziani!
Cosa sarà il futuro, nessuno lo può prevedere. Certamente ci vorrà coraggio: un comportamento disfattista non è degno della vocazione del cristiano per ricostruire, insieme a tutti i cittadini, una città più umana.
L'atteggiamento dell'Occidente
L'occidente, preso dai suoi problemi economici e politici, non si interessa molto alla deriva islamista. Ma non si rende conto che questa islamizzazione avrà conseguenze e ripercussioni numerose proprio sull'occidente.
Il fondamentalismo islamico emerge sempre di più nella comunità musulmana in Europa. L'ultima inchiesta in Francia, fatta dall'IFOP, su come i francesi vedono l'islam, mostra che la situazione sta peggiorando: più del 60% dei francesi vede l'islam inadatto all'occidente, incapace di integrarsi.
Questa visione negativa nasce dal fatto che il mondo islamico rigetta con nettezza l'occidente, da esso considerato "ateo" e "immorale". A questo si aggiunge tutta la discussione attuale sui matrimoni gay, sulle coppie di fatto (il PACS), sulle adozioni da parte di coppie di fatto. Per il mondo musulmano fondamentalista, l'Occidente è contro Dio e perciò è da combattere; nel discorso islamista, l'Occidente è la "nuova Jahiliyyah", il nuovo paganesimo.
Per l'occidentale, l'Islam è impossibile da ssimilare e il musulmano appare incapace ad integrarsi nella cultura europea. Perciò è da rigettare. La laicità occidentale (in particolare quella francese) appare al mondo musulmano come ateismo. Perciò parlare di laicità solleva automaticamente un rigetto da parte di molti. Papa Benedetto XVI, nella sua esortazione apostolica "Ecclesia in Medio Oriente" del 14 settembre 2012 (n. 29), mette in luce proprio questo: «È con grande sospetto che alcuni responsabili politici e religiosi medio-orientali, di tutte le comunità, considerano la laicità come atea o immorale».
Il modello suggerito dal papa invece è un altro:
«La sana laicità, al contrario, significa liberare la religione dal peso della politica e arricchire la politica con gli apporti della religione, mantenendo la necessaria distanza, la chiara distinzione e l'indispensabile collaborazione tra le due.
«Nessuna società può svilupparsi in maniera sana senza affermare il reciproco rispetto tra politica e religione, evitando la tentazione costante della commistione o dell'opposizione.»
L'atteggiamento dell'Occidente verso la religione ha perciò alcune conseguenze sull'atteggiamento del mondo islamico verso l'Occidente. E l'Europa dovrebbe tenerne conto.
(Fine della Seconda parte. Per la prima parte vedi qui: L'incompiuta: l'inverno islamico della primavera araba)
Vedi anche
08/07/2011 VATICANO - M. ORIENTE
Sinodo del Medio oriente vicino alla primavera araba
 
13/09/2012 EGITTO
Portavoce della Chiesa cattolica egiziana: Il Papa deve andare in Libano anche se la situazione è tesa
13/06/2011 EGITTO - ISLAM
Il futuro della “primavera araba”, frenato da povertà e fondamentalismo
 
27/04/2010 VATICANO - MEDIO ORIENTE
Sinodo per il Medio Oriente: annunciare il Vangelo nei Paesi islamici
10/12/2009 VATICANO - MEDIO ORIENTE
P. Samir: La scomparsa delle Chiese del Medio oriente, tragedia per cristiani e musulmani